Sunday, December 25, 2022


Dr. Ita Fitriana

Universitas Jendral Soedirman Purwokerto


The study entitled "Analysis of Conversation Implicature and Conventional Implicature is a discourse analysis of dialog. In daily conversation, people are used to an implicature. The discourse of daily implicatures contains particular messages or implied meanings. This happens because each other often happens a miscommunication. In other words, the lack of awareness of implicatures in daily life. The problem studied in this research is how the picture implicatures discourse of everyday conversation. To answer this research problem, use the descriptive method that describes and reveals facts. The finding of this study, in particular, can be used as a means for the public understanding of the language's daily conversation containing implicatures.

Keywords: conversation, implicatures, conventional.

1. Background

Communication is one aspect that is very important for human life in maintaining life. Human life cannot be separated from communication activities because humans are social creatures who need other people to sustain their lives. Relationships between humans are created through communication, be it verbal communication which is usually related to language, or nonverbal, which is usually related to symbols, images, or other communication media. In addition to sustaining life, communication also plays an essential role in maintaining relationships and gaining happiness. Aristotle explained that social creatures are zoon politicon, which means that humans are naturally living in society and interacting with each other. As social beings, humans need other humans to survive and are required to work together. In the process of interaction between humans, communication is created. Understanding communication means understanding what happens during communication and why it happens.

 Why does it happen, what benefits are felt, what consequences are caused, whether the purpose and activities of communicating are following what is desired, and understanding things that can influence and maximize the results of these events. According to Arifin (1988, p. 17) communication is a concept that has many meanings.

The definition of communication can be viewed from two points of view: communication in general terms and paradigmatic terms. Communication, in general, can be understood as an activity that cannot be separated from human life. Communication is a consequence of social relations (social relations), ultimately leading to social interaction (social interaction).

Communication is not only carried out by two different individuals but can also be more than that. According to Effendy (1993, pp. 57-83), forms of communication are summarized into three types: personal communication, group communication, and mass communication.

In addition to forms of communication, an essential part of communication is the message the sender conveys to the recipient. The message conveyed can be verbal, visual, or through touch. One of the tools used to describe the message is by using language.

Language is a tool for interaction or communication (Chaer, 2007, p. 14). Language in community interaction has an important role in human life. According to Chaer (Chaer, 2007, p. 14) language is humane, in the sense that, with language, people can make communication and social contact. Therefore, humans can only carry out communication activities with language.

2. Discussion

Every conversation carried out by a group of people, or individuals will attract different meanings; this depends on how the interlocutor responds to the speaker's intention. In a conversation, speakers and speech partners must understand each other's intentions because not everything said by the speaker refers to the actual intention; this triggers the implicature used by the speaker at any time who wants to insinuate or offend others through words that have other intentions. Implicature is the implied meaning of what is said. Implicature. the conversation is a strategy that makes it easier for speakers to convey their intention through language in an utterance.

Etymologically, implicature is derived from implicatum Echols via Mulyana (2005, p. 11). This term is almost the same as the word implication, which means intention, understanding, and involvement. In verbal communication, the implicature is usually already known by the speakers. Therefore, it does not need to be expressed explicitly. Implicature is part of the information conveyed and not said; speakers can always refuse to communicate intentions. Those conversational implicatures can be explicitly denied (or reinforced) differently (Yule, 2006, p. 77). According to Wijana (1996, p. 37), an utterance can lead to many implicatures depending on the implications of the utterance. The implicature of an utterance depends on the implications present from the utterance, which is reinforced by the context covering the utterance. Grice via Mulyana (2005, pp. 12-13) and Zamzani (2007, p. 28) state that there are two types of implicature, namely conventional implicature and conversation implicature.

a) Conventional Implicature

Conventional implicature is determined by the "conventional meaning of the words used". This means that the meaning is general; everyone already knows about a particular thing's meaning or meaning. Conventional implicature is non-contemporary. This means that the meaning or understanding of something is more durable. In addition, conventional implicature explains more about what is meant so that speech participants generally already know about the meaning or understanding of certain things.

b) Conversational Implicature

The use of the term conversational implicature develops with the use of the term conversational implicature and also alternates with the term unconventional implicature. The meaning contained in conversational implicature is something that the speaker suggests. The suggested purpose by the speaker is different from what is meant. This fact implies that in communication between speakers and speech partners, the form of speech conveyed is possibly different from the real thing. Conversational implicature is found in a deliberately formed speech to achieve specific communication effects. The effect that may be achieved through this type of implicature is a joke. 


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